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16 October 2004 @ 08:24 pm
Simple and Short :-D


1.)War of Austrian Succession- Maria Theresa’s right to defend her right to inherit the Austrian Hapsburg domains although she lost Silesia to the Prussians. She successfully stripped the lands of their administrative functions, and gained control over the administrations of the Roman Catholic Church.

2.) Junkers- A member of the Prussian landed aristocracy, a class formerly associated with political reaction and militarism.

3.) Pragmatic Sanction- An edict or decree issued by a sovereign that becomes part of the fundamental law of the land. The legal basis negotiated by the emperor Charles VI for the Hapsburg succession through his daughter Maria Theresa.

4.) Romanovs- Russian ruling dynasty that began with the accession of Czar Michael and ended with the abdication of Nicholas II during the Russian Revolution.

5.) Frederick William the great elector- Elector of Brandenburg who reorganized and rebuilt his domain after its devastation in the Thirty Years' War, The instruments he used were a tightly centralized bureaucracy and a rigorously disciplined army.

6.) Boyars- A member of a class of higher Russian nobility that until the time of Peter I headed the civil and military administration of the country and participated in an early duma.

7.) Hohenzollern- German royal family who ruled Brandenburg from 1415 and later extended their control to Prussia. Under Frederick I the family's possessions were unified as the kingdom of Prussia. From 1871 to 1918 Hohenzollern monarchs ruled the German Empire.
 
 
16 October 2004 @ 08:08 pm
1.) Absolutism- term applied to a strong centralized continental monarchy that attempted to make royal power dominant over aristocracies and other regional authorities.

2.) Sovereignty- Supremacy of authority or rule as exercised by a sovereign or sovereign state.

3.) Totalitarianism- Of, relating to, being, or imposing a form of government in which the political authority exercises absolute and centralized control over all aspects of life, the individual is subordinated to the state, and opposing political and cultural expression is suppressed.

4.) Cardinal Richelieu- French prelate and statesman, Minister of the Catholic king of France who wanted to prevent a powerful Hapsburg empire from materializing on France’s border. Believed France’s interests were best served by curing the power of the Catholic Hapsburg. Determined to control Spain. In 30 years war, funded Protestant army. Appointed civil servants (intendants) to guard against abuses in the sale of royal privileges, and also began a campaign against Huguenots.

5.) Louis XIII- Successor of Henry IV, Who began to reassert the crowns authority. Relied greatly on Cardinal Richelieu in familiar insurgence and war with Spain and the Hapsburgs, because he was only 5 years old. (Wedded to Spanish infanta, and his sister, Elizabeth.)

6.) The Fronde- A series of rebellions against royal authority in France, between 1649 and 1652. A political party in France, during the minority of Louis XIV, who opposed the government, and made war upon the court party.

7.)Jules Mazarin- Richelieu’s protégé. Italian-born French cardinal who exercised great political influence as the tutor and chief minister to Louis XIV. Man who had the political backlash left by Richelieu’s effort to build a strong centralized governments where, the fronde formed. And eventually led to him leaving France.

8.) Louis XIV- King of France. His reign, the longest in French history, was characterized by a magnificent court and the expansion of French influence in Europe. Louis waged three major wars: the Dutch War, the War of the Grand Alliance and the War of the Spanish Succession. Bought nobles under control in 16th-17th century. Used propaganda from Richelieu.

9.) Jean-Baptiste Colbert- French politician who served as an adviser to Louis XIV. Colbert reformed taxes, centralized the administration, and improved roads and canals in an effort to encourage trade. She encouraged mercantilisms.

10.) Mercantilism- term used to describe close government control of the economy that sought to maximize exports and accumulate as much precious metals as possible to enable the state to defend its economic and political interests.

11.) William of Orange- Politique, King of England, Scotland and Ireland; he married the daughter of James II and was invited by opponents of James II to invade England; when James fled, William III and Mary II were declared joint monarchs.

12.) Treaty of Utrecht- ended the War of the Spanish Succession.

13.) Oliver Cromwell- Man who organized the new model army, called the Ironsides. English military, political, and religious figure that led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England he ruled as a virtual dictator. His son Richard succeeded him briefly as lord protector before the restoration of the monarchy under Charles II. Restricted freedom of Anglicans and Catholics.

14.) The Restoration- the return of King Charles II. in 1660, and the reestablishment of monarchy.

15. John Locke- English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience. Believed in the natural rights of life, liberty and property, and when their rights aren’t met, the people have a right to revolt.

16.) Thomas Hobbes- English philosopher and political theorist best known for his book Leviathan, in which he argues that the only way to secure civil society is through universal submission to the absolute authority of a sovereign. Believes that all processes are egoistical, and each human life is to increase pleasure and minimize pain.

17.) English Bill of Rights- Bill issued by William and Mary in which, limited the powers of the monarchy and guaranteed the civil liberties of England’s privileged classes, also, prohibited Roman Catholics from occupying the English throne.

18.) Petition of rights- petition by parliament in 1628, which no longer forced loans or taxation without the consent of Parliament, did not imprison citizens without a due cause, and ended the billeting of troops in private homes.

19.) New Model Army- organized by Oliver Cromwell, nicknamed the ironsides, defeated the cavaliers, in Marston Moor and in Naseby
 
 
16 October 2004 @ 08:08 pm
I BETTER GET A THANK YOU THIS TIME LOSERS.






1.) Absolutism- term applied to a strong centralized continental monarchy that attempted to make royal power dominant over aristocracies and other regional authorities.

2.) Sovereignty- Supremacy of authority or rule as exercised by a sovereign or sovereign state.

3.) Totalitarianism- Of, relating to, being, or imposing a form of government in which the political authority exercises absolute and centralized control over all aspects of life, the individual is subordinated to the state, and opposing political and cultural expression is suppressed.

4.) Cardinal Richelieu- French prelate and statesman, Minister of the Catholic king of France who wanted to prevent a powerful Hapsburg empire from materializing on France’s border. Believed France’s interests were best served by curing the power of the Catholic Hapsburg. Determined to control Spain. In 30 years war, funded Protestant army. Appointed civil servants (intendants) to guard against abuses in the sale of royal privileges, and also began a campaign against Huguenots.

5.) Louis XIII- Successor of Henry IV, Who began to reassert the crowns authority. Relied greatly on Cardinal Richelieu in familiar insurgence and war with Spain and the Hapsburgs, because he was only 5 years old. (Wedded to Spanish infanta, and his sister, Elizabeth.)

6.) The Fronde- A series of rebellions against royal authority in France, between 1649 and 1652. A political party in France, during the minority of Louis XIV, who opposed the government, and made war upon the court party.

7.)Jules Mazarin- Richelieu’s protégé. Italian-born French cardinal who exercised great political influence as the tutor and chief minister to Louis XIV. Man who had the political backlash left by Richelieu’s effort to build a strong centralized governments where, the fronde formed. And eventually led to him leaving France.

8.) Louis XIV- King of France. His reign, the longest in French history, was characterized by a magnificent court and the expansion of French influence in Europe. Louis waged three major wars: the Dutch War, the War of the Grand Alliance and the War of the Spanish Succession. Bought nobles under control in 16th-17th century. Used propaganda from Richelieu.

9.) Jean-Baptiste Colbert- French politician who served as an adviser to Louis XIV. Colbert reformed taxes, centralized the administration, and improved roads and canals in an effort to encourage trade. She encouraged mercantilisms.

10.) Mercantilism- term used to describe close government control of the economy that sought to maximize exports and accumulate as much precious metals as possible to enable the state to defend its economic and political interests.

11.) William of Orange- Politique, King of England, Scotland and Ireland; he married the daughter of James II and was invited by opponents of James II to invade England; when James fled, William III and Mary II were declared joint monarchs.

12.) Treaty of Utrecht- ended the War of the Spanish Succession.

13.) Oliver Cromwell- Man who organized the new model army, called the Ironsides. English military, political, and religious figure that led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England he ruled as a virtual dictator. His son Richard succeeded him briefly as lord protector before the restoration of the monarchy under Charles II. Restricted freedom of Anglicans and Catholics.

14.) The Restoration- the return of King Charles II. in 1660, and the reestablishment of monarchy.

15. John Locke- English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience. Believed in the natural rights of life, liberty and property, and when their rights aren’t met, the people have a right to revolt.

16.) Thomas Hobbes- English philosopher and political theorist best known for his book Leviathan, in which he argues that the only way to secure civil society is through universal submission to the absolute authority of a sovereign. Believes that all processes are egoistical, and each human life is to increase pleasure and minimize pain.

17.) English Bill of Rights- Bill issued by William and Mary in which, limited the powers of the monarchy and guaranteed the civil liberties of England’s privileged classes, also, prohibited Roman Catholics from occupying the English throne.

18.) Petition of rights- petition by parliament in 1628, which no longer forced loans or taxation without the consent of Parliament, did not imprison citizens without a due cause, and ended the billeting of troops in private homes.

19.) New Model Army- organized by Oliver Cromwell, nicknamed the ironsides, defeated the cavaliers, in Marston Moor and in Naseby
 
 
05 October 2004 @ 12:10 am
Yes.. i am so nice.. for those of you who actually read this.. will find this important.. but if u dont, oh well your loss. you can NOT just copy and paste everything that is written here.. put it in ur own words and only take whats needed :-D

1. Act of Supremacy- A bill passed in Parliment which stated the king, rather than the pope, to be the head of the english church. Under this the king remained catholic teachings.

2.Anglicanism- The reformation in english led to the establishment of the state controlled in england (anglicanism) they trace traditions back to the first followers of jesus. Anglicans maintain authority within the church through apostaic succession. Anglicanism is a branch of christianity.

3. John Calvin- Studier of law and theology, who was inflenced by Luther and became a protestant. Forced to Geneva, but led city's reformation. Emerged his ideas of theology, institutes of christian religion, luther belived in predestionation (see 17)

4. Transubstantion- The doctrine that, the entire substances of the bread and wine are changed in the eucharist into the body and blood of christ.

5. Council of Trent- An assembly of archbishops, bishops and other church leaders, both defined roman catholic doctrine and initiated a program to eliminate abuses in the church. Strongly affirmed catholic teachings. They assigned archbishops and bishops to live in areas they served, the selling of church offices prohibited, wanted the clergy to be educated, and indulgences no longed be allowed. Preach in regular vernacular. The council of trent in the end strenghtened the authority of the pope.

6.Diet of Worms- In 1521, Luther appeared before diet in worms, luther was condemed as a heretic and this was set in order to check his views on the reformation.

7. Edict of Nantes- An edict issued by Henry IV (see 19) giving toleration to protestants. Its revocation by Louis XIV was follwed by a terrible persecution and the expansion of thousands of french protestants
in case u were wondering
(edict- a command by an offical)

8. Excommunication- Denial by the chruch of the right to recieve the sacraments.

9. Huguenots- French calvanists in the 16th and 17th centuries. one fifth of frances population. Oppsed the protestant congregations and fought with Catherine de Medicis and lost.

10. Ignatius Loyala- Spanish ecclesiatic who founded the jesuits and was a leader of the counter reformation.

11. Indulgences- Remission of the temporal penalty of punishment in purgatory that remained after sins have been forgiven.

12. Jesuits- The society of jesus, one of the most influential of religious orders led by Ingatius Loyala (see 10) Organized like military, spread protestantism, credited with recovery of catholicism, and preserved catholic faith. They worked in the education and youth of foreign missions.

13. John Knox- Scottish religious reformer and founder of scottish presbyerianism. While leaving in exile, during mary queen of scots, a catholic, he came under the inflence of john calvin. Returning to scotland, knox led the struggle for religious reforms. With drafting of confussions of faith, protestantism became the established religion of scotland.

14. Martin Luther- German theologian and led reformation. His opposition to the wealth and corruption of the papacy and his belief that salvation would be granted on the basis of faith drove rather than by works caused by excommunication from the catholic church. Luther wrote the 95 theses which opposed the corruption in church and effectivly established the lutheran church.

15. Simony- The buying or selling of ecclesiastical pardons, offices and emculments.

16. Theocracy- A government ruled by or subjects to religous authority.

17. Predestination- destiny,fate.
The doctrine that god had foreordained all souls to salvation or damnation. It was especially associated with calvanism.

18. Ulrich Zwingli- Swiss religous reformer whose sermons on the absolute authority of the bible, marked the beginning of the reformation in switzerland.

19. Henry IV of Bourbon-Navarre- King of france who founded the bourbone royal line, successfully wagned war against spain and gave political rights to french protestants in edict of Nantes (see 7)

20.Peace of Westphalia- ended the 30 yrs war and expanded the peace of the augsburg to include calvinists, catholics and lutherans. Ended the holy roman emperors hope in restoring power and catholic faith. Established france as teh predominant power of the european continent.

i hope that was of to some help to some of the rather.. busy people :D im gunna try to do this everytime.. and have the questions and the answers on here the day before the readings due.. hehe..
not only is it a help to u.. but more of a help to me.. bc im repeating it and im going to remember it better.. but shh.. keep this on the dl.. lol were kinda cheatin here.
 
 
28 September 2004 @ 09:54 pm
wow..i havent read this thing for a month...umm hmm...im not in ap so good luck w/ ur stuff there ppl....n school..ehh...i really miss 9th grade...gym was so much fun last year...this year i dont think is gonna b as much fun as it was last year...last was definately the best for me...i think its also bc there are ppl who arent here anymore...like amanda gerani...i miss that girl so much...i remember watching her play duck duck goose w/ ppl..lmao...if u were in my gym period...u would agree....

ok i think thats it for now..
 
 
 
25 September 2004 @ 02:17 pm
Your group is going down in that debate on Monday Leo. BOO YAH!
::does a gansterr diddie::

What do you all people like about this new school year? Any dislikes?
 
 
22 September 2004 @ 02:15 pm
thanks jimson for making me feel SO smart. lol..
well..
hm.. lets get ally to join. lol well anyway..

for chapter 10..
 
 
Current Mood: crazycrazy
 
 
21 September 2004 @ 10:41 pm
hey ive jus finished half of chapter 10 for AP.. i think its the easiest chapter so far.. if any1 needs any help, jus ask me..
 
 
20 September 2004 @ 05:33 pm
o_O  
whoa i actually think thats a great idea .. comin from .. leo lol
but yea i agree .. thats a good idea since we're all gettin answers frm each other neways and callin each other up n evrything so...
YES LET'S GET THIS BABY STARTED AGAIN!!!
 
 
19 September 2004 @ 11:40 am
hey.. lets try to get this started up again.. you know since most of us are in ap.. we should like help each other out and stuff. lol