1.) Absolutism- term applied to a strong centralized continental monarchy that attempted to make royal power dominant over aristocracies and other regional authorities.
2.) Sovereignty- Supremacy of authority or rule as exercised by a sovereign or sovereign state.
3.) Totalitarianism- Of, relating to, being, or imposing a form of government in which the political authority exercises absolute and centralized control over all aspects of life, the individual is subordinated to the state, and opposing political and cultural expression is suppressed.
4.) Cardinal Richelieu- French prelate and statesman, Minister of the Catholic king of France who wanted to prevent a powerful Hapsburg empire from materializing on France’s border. Believed France’s interests were best served by curing the power of the Catholic Hapsburg. Determined to control Spain. In 30 years war, funded Protestant army. Appointed civil servants (intendants) to guard against abuses in the sale of royal privileges, and also began a campaign against Huguenots.
5.) Louis XIII- Successor of Henry IV, Who began to reassert the crowns authority. Relied greatly on Cardinal Richelieu in familiar insurgence and war with Spain and the Hapsburgs, because he was only 5 years old. (Wedded to Spanish infanta, and his sister, Elizabeth.)
6.) The Fronde- A series of rebellions against royal authority in France, between 1649 and 1652. A political party in France, during the minority of Louis XIV, who opposed the government, and made war upon the court party.
7.)Jules Mazarin- Richelieu’s protégé. Italian-born French cardinal who exercised great political influence as the tutor and chief minister to Louis XIV. Man who had the political backlash left by Richelieu’s effort to build a strong centralized governments where, the fronde formed. And eventually led to him leaving France.
8.) Louis XIV- King of France. His reign, the longest in French history, was characterized by a magnificent court and the expansion of French influence in Europe. Louis waged three major wars: the Dutch War, the War of the Grand Alliance and the War of the Spanish Succession. Bought nobles under control in 16th-17th century. Used propaganda from Richelieu.
9.) Jean-Baptiste Colbert- French politician who served as an adviser to Louis XIV. Colbert reformed taxes, centralized the administration, and improved roads and canals in an effort to encourage trade. She encouraged mercantilisms.
10.) Mercantilism- term used to describe close government control of the economy that sought to maximize exports and accumulate as much precious metals as possible to enable the state to defend its economic and political interests.
11.) William of Orange- Politique, King of England, Scotland and Ireland; he married the daughter of James II and was invited by opponents of James II to invade England; when James fled, William III and Mary II were declared joint monarchs.
12.) Treaty of Utrecht- ended the War of the Spanish Succession.
13.) Oliver Cromwell- Man who organized the new model army, called the Ironsides. English military, political, and religious figure that led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England he ruled as a virtual dictator. His son Richard succeeded him briefly as lord protector before the restoration of the monarchy under Charles II. Restricted freedom of Anglicans and Catholics.
14.) The Restoration- the return of King Charles II. in 1660, and the reestablishment of monarchy.
15. John Locke- English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience. Believed in the natural rights of life, liberty and property, and when their rights aren’t met, the people have a right to revolt.
16.) Thomas Hobbes- English philosopher and political theorist best known for his book Leviathan, in which he argues that the only way to secure civil society is through universal submission to the absolute authority of a sovereign. Believes that all processes are egoistical, and each human life is to increase pleasure and minimize pain.
17.) English Bill of Rights- Bill issued by William and Mary in which, limited the powers of the monarchy and guaranteed the civil liberties of England’s privileged classes, also, prohibited Roman Catholics from occupying the English throne.
18.) Petition of rights- petition by parliament in 1628, which no longer forced loans or taxation without the consent of Parliament, did not imprison citizens without a due cause, and ended the billeting of troops in private homes.
19.) New Model Army- organized by Oliver Cromwell, nicknamed the ironsides, defeated the cavaliers, in Marston Moor and in Naseby